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A known frequency transverse sound wave is projected down a closed column and reaches the column’s end. The sound wave is reflected along the column opposite in direction to that of the incident wave. The two waves combine so that there is no propagation of energy along the wave. The wave displacements are constant and remain fixed in location. This is called a standing wave because the two waves of equal amplitude and wavelength do not appear to be traveling. Standing waves are formed in strings of musical instruments and in the air in an organ pipe, a flute, and other wind instruments. Standing waves can then be produced in a column of proper length.

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