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Establishing an employee leave donation program?

topic  I choose is  
• Establishing an employee leave donation program?
 For this assignment, you will select a topic from a list provided in the assignment instructions, conduct secondary research (or “find literature”) on that topic, and then provide a 1000-1400 word background review and synthesis of the literature that you find. 
consider the problem you will address and conduct research in the library on the topic. 

 sample paper


A review of the popular, trade, and scholarly literature on teleworking has shown three

major categories: the impact of teleworking on employees who telework, the impact of

teleworking on the social and wor

king relationships among all workers, and management

strategies and behaviors that influence the success of a teleworking arrangement.

The Impact of Teleworking on Employees Who Telework

Studies show that teleworkers can feel isolated and detect increased

demands on them as

a result of teleworking. One common theme is stress. Teleworkers can “suffer from heightened

stress and anxiety if it is not easy for them to switch off” (Crunden, 2016, p. 11). Such stress

might be contributed to by longer work hours. T

eleworkers are likely to work more hours and

less likely to work a regular schedule (Noonan & Glass, 2012). In fact, Kossek, Thompson, and

Lautsch (2015) shed light on both increased stress and longer work hours as they identified

several “traps” that can

ensnare teleworkers, including one of “altered work

life dynamics” (p.


Employees, they argue, can feel “isolated and distant from the social life of the firm” and,

thus, not feel as much of a part of the organizational culture as non

teleworking emplo

yees do (p.

7).  Furthermore, “job or family creep” can intensify with a teleworking arrangement, often

caused by the inability to set boundaries between work and family lives (p. 8). In fact,

“…heavier users of work

life flexibility supports actually expe





conflict” (p. 8). Thus, Kossek et al. concluded that, while teleworking is often designed to reduce

stress among workers, it can often increase stress among workers who are unable to separate

work from family life in a clear f



Teleworkers can also sense a different set of evaluation criteria from that of non

teleworking employees. Caillier (2013), in his study of teleworking federal employees,

concluded that employees who chose not to telework did not report that they we

re being

managed for results as much as teleworking employees reported. Caillier surmised that it is

possible that teleworkers are evaluated more on “output

based controls,” while non


employees are evaluated more on “behavior

based controls” (p

. 650). It is possible that workers

who telework face more pressure to produce results than employees who work on


The Impact of Teleworking on Social and Working Relationships

Among Workers

The literature on the relationships between teleworkers an

d non

teleworkers is


Some studies show a sense of unfairness on both sides, while other studies show that

social and working relationships are not compromised when some employees telework and

others do not.

However, the results seem to be influenc

ed by the level of intensity that an

employee teleworks.

Some research indicates that tension can result when teleworking is offered. One of the

“traps” that Kossek, Thompson, and Lautsch (2015) identified wa

s the “fairness trap” (p. 8).

Workers who do

not telework can feel unfairly treated if others are allowed to. In such cases, a

clear understanding of why it is allowed for some and not for others is needed. The authors

maintain that if an organization allows teleworking on a case


case basis and de

cides to allow

teleworking for some employees who show a need for it, then employees who do not show an

apparent need can feel slighted. An example they give is while one employee might have elderly

relatives to care for and be allowed to telecommute, anot

her employee who has a pet to care for

might not be given the opportunity to telecommute.


In addition, employees working on

site can feel that more is demanded of them because

they are not teleworking. Kossek, Thompson, and Lautsch (2015) noted that at one



company, employees were more likely to leave the company because of a perceived need that

they had to be available for last

minute tasks due to the fact that they were working on

site. In

addition, the authors found that employees felt that they

had to be more flexible to arrange

meetings around teleworkers’ schedules and had to rely on more formal communication methods

like email rather than face


face interactions when communicating with teleworking

employees. The authors concluded, “…co


ers may resent any apparent favoritism by

supervisors and any appearance that work is being transferred to them because of the flexibility

user’s work arrangement” (pp. 9


On the other hand, teleworking employees can feel a sense of unfairness

because of a

feeling of higher expectations and social isolation. Teleworking can result in increased

expectations from management. Noonan and Glass (2012) noted that “…the ability of employees

to work at home may actually allow employers to raise expectat

ions for work availability during

evenings and weekends and foster longer workdays and workweeks” (p. 45). Moreover, Kossek,

Thompson, and Lautsch (2015) argued that the physical separation that employees who work

from home feel from employees who work in

the office can lead to a sense of lower respect

among colleagues and management. In an analysis of two high

tech companies, they found that

the physical distance teleworkers maintained “reduced the amount that individuals working

flexibly felt respected, a

nd in turn made them feel less like full members of the organization”

(p. 7). This effect is most likely contributed to by the lack of immediacy that teleworkers discern.

Caillier (2013) noted that because they “do not receive the same amount of face



ace contact

as traditional workers,…a lot of information teleworkers receive is sent through less rich


mediums” (p. 641). Thus, teleworking employees can sense that higher expectations are placed

upon them with lower quality communication channels availabl

e to them.

However, Gajendran and Harrison (2007) found that social relationships among fellow

workers were not compromised as a result of the opportunity for some employees to


They noted that, in their analysis, “being a commuter does not appea

r to damage

social ties with others at work” (p. 1535). However, it should be noted that their study did show

that the intensity with which an employee teleworks can “amplify a negative or damaging effect

of telecommuting on coworker relationship quality”

(p. 1535). They defined high


telecommuting as working from home more than 2.5 days per week. Thus, their study did

indicate that negative repercussions can occur among employees as a result of teleworking, but

the frequency with which an employee

teleworks seemed to be the pivotal factor. Their results

are echoed by those of Torten, Reaiche, and Caraballo (2016), who concluded that “The most

significant effect on teleworking success was demonstrated by the number of days worked per

week” (p. 325).

Overall, some research shows that a lack of inclusion can create resentment from

teleworkers toward those who are able to work on

site, while a sense of unfairness can pervade

the sentiments of employees working on

site toward those who are allowed to t

elework. Other

studies conclude that such resentment does not necessarily result from teleworking, but that high

intensity teleworking demonstrates a higher propensity for such conflict than low



Management Strategies for Supervisors

Overseeing Teleworking Arrangements

The dynamics mentioned above lead to the conclusion that supervisors have to manage

the teleworking arrangement effectively in order to experience positive results with



Management has to be clear on its criteria fo

r establishing teleworking policies, effective in

its methods of including teleworkers in the day


day operations of the office, and generous in

the training offered for teleworkers.

The literature suggests that teleworking should be allowed based on abi

lity and

experience, not on personal need. Kossek, Thompson, and Lautsch (2015) warned, “Managers

should not let an employee’s family status factor into the decision

making process when

considering whether to offer workplace flexibility to employees” (p. 9

). Daniels supported this

notion as well, maintaining that teleworking should be an earned privilege (as cited in Freifeld,


Moreover, management can help create a successful teleworking arrangement by

including teleworkers in the day


day op

erations of the workplace. Crunden (2016) maintained

that teleworkers must “feel like they are part of a cohesive team” and that they should be

included “even where last

minute ad hoc meetings are arranged” (p. 11). In fact, Daniels argued

that the level o

f engagement that employees sense is not determined by whether or not the

organization allows teleworking but rather by “management systems and behaviors” (as cited in

Freifeld, 2014, p. 16).

This concept leads to another important characteristic of eff

ective teleworking

arrangements: training. Yost recommends a combination of in

person or web

based training

meetings (as cited in Friefeld, 2014), while Stanley confirms, “We see more success in

organizations that train managers, telecommuters, and co


ers in some aspect of teleworking

policy, organizational culture, and senior management’s views on this way of working” (as cited

in Freifeld, 2014, p. 11).



The literature on teleworking shows that employees who telework can feel isolated and


n often sense a higher set of expectations put on them than those that are put on non

teleworking employees. However, analysis also shows that non

teleworking employees detect

unfair treatment if the guidelines for when to allow teleworking are not clearly


Moreover, non

teleworking employees can feel that more is expected of them than is

expected of teleworking employees because non

teleworking employees are working on

site. It

is interesting to note that both groups can feel that more is expected

of them, but for different

reasons. The frequency with which an employee teleworks seems to have an impact on the

significance of such tension.

Management can help create a successful teleworking arrangement by setting clear

guidelines on who is allowed t

o telework when and by providing training on how to


Research indicates that training programs result in increased levels of success for

companies and organizations that allow employees to work from a distance.



Caillier, J. G. (2013).

Does teleworking affect managing for results and constructive feedback? A

research note.

Canadian Public Administration

, (4), 638

654. Retrieved from


Crunden, N. (2016). Help mobile workers feel less remote.

Occupational Hea




(6), 11.

Freifeld, L. (2014). Home Improvement?




(4), 16


Gajendran, R. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2007). The good, the bad, and the unknown about

telecommuting: Meta

analysis of psychological mediators and individual consequences.


l of Applied Psychology



(6), 1524

1541. Retrieved from

Kossek, E. E., Thompson, R. J., & Lautsch, B. A. (2015). Balanced workplace flexibility:

Avoiding the traps.

California Management Review



(4), 5




Noonan, M. C., & Glass, J. L. (2012). The hard truth about telecommuting.

Monthly Labor


, 38

45. Retrieved from

Torten, R., Reaiche, C., & Caraballo, E. L. (2016). Teleworking in the new milleneum.


of Developing Areas

, (5), 317

326. Retrieved from

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